Agitation has been defined as "a state of chronic restlessness and increased psychomotor activity generally observed as an expression of emotional tension and characterized by purposeless, restless activity. Pacing, talking, crying, and laughing sometimes are characteristic and may serve to release nervous tension associated with anxiety, fear, or other mental stress." In hospitalized patients, agitation can have multiple causes, including stress, pain, inactivity, frustration, confusion, and an inability to communicate. As Segatore and Adams note, agitation levels can range from mild, in which harm is unlikely, to severe, in which the patient's verbally or physically violent behaviors can potentially cause harm to self or others. Patients at high risk for Agitation Equipment include those with cognitive decline or dementia, multiple medical or psychiatric diagnoses, or polypharmacy. In the hospital setting, patients who are agitated are often physically restrained; but this usually increases their agitation and worsens disruptive behaviors.9 Indeed, the use of restraints has been associated with lower cognitive performance, lower functionality in activities of daily living, decreased psychological well-being, and increased risk of serious injury.
Most of the patients under continuous observation were experiencing both anxiety and agitation, leading to disruptive behaviors and attempts to walk unassisted. Despite intensive supervision, they were disrupting treatment and experiencing falls. When restraints were used, the level of agitation frequently escalated. We acknowledged that continuous observation, as it was currently being performed, was less than effective. The observers were then encouraged to try engaging the patient in an activity and to note the patient's response. Many patients showed interest in the offered activity and appeared to enjoy it. It was at this point that we decided to explore patients' responses to individualized activities in a measurable way.
Thickening Equipment developed lately in China. The first thickener was made in accordance with Soviet-style thickener. With about a decade of exploration, a series of thickening products are produced in the mid-1960s., which met the needs of the middle and small scale dressing plants in domestic basically. By the 1970s, thickening equipment was in the trend of systematization and standardization, and the classification became more complicated.
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