Cancer is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Major cause of cancer is gene mutation and rarely due to inherited genes. On the basis of the type of cell it initiates to form cancerous with, it is divided into carcinoma, lymphomas, leukaemias, brain tumors, and sarcomas. According to World Health Organization (WHO), 2017, nearly 1 in 6 deaths is due to cancer globally and around 70% of deaths from cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, it is projected that for next two decades, 70% of new cases are expected to be diagnosed globally. Advent of cancer vaccines can significantly reduce this numbers and lead a cancer-free life for the global population.
Manufacturers in the cancer vaccines market are focusing on developing new vaccines in order to treat various cancers. Through this, they are expected to gain a competitive edge in the market and increase their market share. For instance, Gilead Science Inc., in 2017, acquired Kite Pharma Inc., which is involved in development of different type of immunotherapy and vaccines. Also, Treos Bio, in 2017, collaborated with Pharmaceutical Product Development, LLC (PPD), in order to conduct its first-in-human clinical trial for its cancer vaccine for metastatic colorectal cancer.
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Furthermore, BioNTech developed RNA vaccines for mutations caused due to cancer. RNA vaccine exposes cancer cell to antigen, which is recognized by the immune system. On the other hand, Scancell’s DNA vaccine forces cancerous cell to express two antigens – gp100 and TRP-2 stimulating a strong T cell response.
In 2017, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Brain Tumor Center at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), was designated a Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) by the National Cancer Institute. The program is expected to support research into prevention, detection, and treatment of cancers and will promote co-operation among scientist in different disciplines, and also help to translate basic research from laboratories to clinical trials more quickly and effectively. Such recognition by national organizations is expected to support research in cancer vaccines.
According to a research from University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, in 2017, a high dose flu vaccine can be used to treat people aged between 54–64 years with chronic condition such as heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, and cancer. The study is recommended for clinical trials in geriatric population.
Also, in 2017, Swiss Biotech, developed VXM01 — an attenuated bacterial vaccine modified to express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), stimulates cytotoxic (killer) T cells, which will destroy cells in the vasculature feeding tumor and allow greater infiltration of immune cells. This vaccine is expected to be used for treatment in colorectal cancer and glioblastoma.
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In August 2017, Imugene Limited announced the entry of its anti-cancer vaccine, HER-Vaxx for gastric cancer in 1b/2 clinical study and the phase 2 is expected to start soon.
Global Cancer Vaccines Market Taxonomy:
By Product Type:
Preventive cancer vaccines
Therapeutic cancer vaccines
Live Attenuated Vaccines
Recombinant Vector Vaccines
Viral Vector And DNA Cancer Vaccines
According to WHO, in 2015, about 8.8 million people died from cancer. Moreover, tobacco related cancers was responsible for 22% deaths, lung cancer accounted for 1.69 million deaths, liver cancer led to 788,000 deaths. Colorectal, stomach, and breast cancer are estimated to cause 774,000, 754,000, and 571,000 deaths, worldwide. Increasing prevalence is a major driving factor to fuel growth of the cancer vaccines market.
Key players in the global cancer vaccines market include, Astrazeneca Plc. (Medimmune, LLC.), Glaxosmithkline Plc., Merck & Co., Inc., Sanofi Pasteur, Aduro BioTech Inc., Sanpower Group, Astellas Pharma Inc., CSL Limited, Pfizer Inc., and Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd.
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